Jesus Christ is the originator and focus of the Christian faith based on the teaching of the Holy Bible. He is the eternal second person of the Triune God who took on humanity at his incarnation, being born of the virgin Mary. He is uniquely the God-man, both fully God and fully man in his one person, who came to fully reveal God and accomplish the redemption of mankind through his sacrificial atoning death on the cross. On the third day following his crucifixion, Jesus rose from the dead by the power of the Holy Spirit and now sits at the right hand of God the Father, according to the Scriptures.
His incarnation, earthly ministry, death, and resurrection are specifically recorded in the four Gospels of the New Testament. The study of Jesus Christ is called Christology.
Jesus the Christ
The name ‘Jesus’ is derived from the Latin form of the Greek Iesous, which in turn is the Greek translation of the Hebrew Jeshua, or Joshua, meaning “Jehovah is salvation.”
The title ‘Christ’, from the Greek Christos, is the equivalent of the Hebrew Messias, meaning “anointed one.” Thus, the term Christ is a title rather than a proper name and identifies Jesus as the anticipated Messiah of the Old Testament.
“To believe that ‘Jesus is the Christ’ is to believe that he is the Anointed, the Messiah of the prophets, the Saviour sent of God, that he was, in a word, what he claimed to be. This is to believe the gospel, by the faith of which alone men can be brought unto God. That Jesus is the Christ is the testimony of God, and the faith of this constitutes a Christian (1 Corinthians 12:3; 1 John 5:1).”
Scripture presents Jesus as the second person of the Trinity who existed prior to his incarnation. Christ was involved in the Creation (John 1:1-3) and is denoted as having existed before all things were created (see Col.1:16-17; cf. John 17:5).
The Word became flesh
And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we have seen his glory, glory as of the only Son from the Father, full of grace and truth. (John 1:14) Although Jesus pre-existed as the Son of God, Scripture teaches that he took on flesh and was born in the likeness of men in human form (Philippians 2:7-8; cf. 1 John 4:2-3). This has traditionally been understood as his incarnation. Jesus was born of a virgin, a doctrine well attested in the NT and found deep in the beliefs of the early church fathers.
Jesus’ life and ministry
“When he was about thirty years of age” (Luke 3:23) Jesus was baptized, signifying the beginning of his ministry. He was then tempted by the devil, and remained obedient unlike the disobedience of Israel in the midst of their temptations. Throughout his ministry he performed many miracles, healing the sick, raising the dead, and performing many “signs” (cf. Gospel of John). He told parables, and the NT (especially the Gospels) are full of his teachings. Furthermore, Jesus lived a sinless life, fulfilling the law and completely obeying the will of God.
The person of Jesus
Jesus is both fully God and fully man. Furthermore, he has been traditionally understood as Prophet, Priest, and King (his “offices”). Scripture also presents him as the Suffering Servant (Isaiah 53), and the Second Adam (Rom.5:12-21; 1 Cor.15:20-22). Who Jesus was (his person) is closely linked to what he did (his works).
The culmination of Jesus’ life
Jesus’ life culminated in his substitutionary death, resurrection and ascension. Scripture teaches that Jesus died, was buried, and rose on the third day (1 Cor 15:3-4; cf. Acts 2:32). In this, he revealed the glory he had with the Father before the world existed (John 17:5), being exalted to the right hand of God and given the name above all names (Phil 2:9).
Jesus will return to judge both believers and unbelievers (see Matt 24-25; cf. 1 Thess). Known as the parousia, Christians call this the Second Coming.